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The virus can be carried or transferred on an infected object such as bedding, food dishes, fur or by other animals, fleas, and humans  see: fomites.
It persists long after evidence of the original body secretion has faded away, and can be transported long distances. Like all parvoviruses, FPLV is extremely resistant to inactivation and can survive for longer than one year in a suitable environment.
Infection occurs when the virus enters the body through the mouth or nose. Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs.
The clinical manifestations of FPLV are variable based on the dose of the virus, the age of the cat, potential breed predispositions, and prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination.
Clinical signs usually develop in 4—6 days after exposure, but can show in 2—14 days. Clinical laboratory findings include but are not limited to :  .
Other signs include: fever, loss of skin elasticity due to dehydration, abdominal pain, sternal recumbency with splayed legs and head droop, nasal discharge and conjunctivitis.
Infection in pregnant cats can result in fetal resorption , mummification, abortion, or stillbirth of neonates. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of FPLV can be made for kittens with appropriate signalment, history, clinical findings and the history of no prior vaccination.
The clinical diagnosis is usually supported by documenting parvovirus antigen in feces by ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR polymerase chain reaction assays.
The availability of validated assays varies by country but is becoming more common. These are only approved and licensed for detecting canine parvovirus , but it is generally known that they also detect FPL viral antigen in feline feces.
These tests are used extra-label because they allow rapid, inexpensive, in-house detection of the virus. In an unvaccinated cat, the presence of antibodies against FPV indicates that the cat either has the disease or has had the disease in the past.
Elevated IgM titers or greater indicate active infection and if clinical signs are obvious diarrhea, panleukopenia the prognosis is poor.
Elevated IgG titers or greater in a cat with clinical signs indicates a better prognosis. Differential diagnoses include salmonellosis , enteric toxins, feline immunodeficiency virus FIV , feline leukemia virus FeLV , cryptosporidiosis , pancreatitis , septicaemia with acute endotoxemia , toxoplasmosis , peritonitis , and lymphoma.
To contain the virus, cats with suspected or diagnosed FPLV should be kept in isolation. It requires immediate, aggressive treatment if the cat is to survive, as it can be fatal in less than 24 hours.
Several articles and publications provide guidance for rescuers and veterinarians for optimizing outcomes. Treatment involves: .
Feeding should be continued as long as possible. In a disease outbreak, unvaccinated kittens or adults can be given anti-FPV serum containing FPV antibodies injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneal.
This may provide protection for 2—4 weeks. Several studies have shown feline recombinant interferon-omega is effective in the treatment of parvoviral enteritis in dogs   and also inhibits replication of FPV in cell culture.
Neutropenia develops earlier than lymphopenia. During recovery from infection, there is typically a rebound neutrophilia with a marked left shift.
Diagnosis can, in some cases, be confirmed using an in-office immunochromatographic test kit intended for detection of fecal CPV antigen.
However, fecal antigen is detectable only for a short time after infection; false-negative results are common.
Differential diagnoses include other causes of profound depression, leukopenia, and GI signs. Salmonellosis and infections with feline leukemia virus FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus should be considered.
FPV infections combined with various salmonellae or feline calicivirus cause much more severe disease than FPV alone.
Successful treatment of acute cases of feline panleukopenia requires vigorous fluid therapy and supportive nursing care in the isolation unit. Electrolyte disturbances eg, hypokalemia , hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, anemia, and opportunistic secondary infections often develop in severely affected cats.
Anticipation of these possibilities, close monitoring, and prompt intervention can improve outcome. In addition to crystalloid infusion, transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma helps support plasma oncotic pressure and provides clotting factors to severely ill, hypoproteinemic kittens.
It also provides some anti-FPV antibodies. Whole blood is preferable for the occasional cat that is severely anemic. Parenteral, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is indicated; however, nephrotoxic drugs eg, aminoglycosides must be avoided until dehydration has been fully corrected.
Because of the nephrotoxic potential of the gentamicin , urinary protein dipstick findings, sequential urine sediments, and serum SDMA or creatinine should be monitored.
There are single antibiotic agents, albeit more expensive, that are effective against the anaerobes and gram-negative aerobes that are the most important bacteria in feline panleukopenia.
These include third-generation cephalosporins eg, ceftiofur, cefotaxime and extended penicillins eg, piperacillin. Antiemetic therapy eg, maropitant, ondansetron or metoclopramide usually provides some relief and allows earlier enteral feeding of soft, easily digested food.
Maropitant is the first-choice anti-emetic. In severely affected cats it can be combined with ondansetron. Feeding little and often should be commenced as early as possible, even in the face of mild, intermittent, persistent vomiting.
Feeding promotes healing of the GI mucosa and re-establishment of an effective mucosal barrier. Cats with severe vomiting should not be fed until the vomiting is better controlled.
Parenteral nutrition is indicated only for the most severely affected cases, and its use should not delay vigorous attempts to start enteral feeding.
Although rFeIFN is not approved by the FDA for this purpose and has not been proven effective in feline panleukopenia, it is approved and effective in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis.
Passive immunotherapy using immune serum from solidly immune cats, or using a commercial product raised in horses, is widely practiced in some countries.
There is limited evidence of treatment efficacy, however. Excellent inactivated and modified-live virus vaccines that provide solid, long-lasting immunity are available for prevention of feline panleukopenia.
Most authorities recommend that kittens receive two or three modified-live vaccine doses SC, 3—4 weeks apart. The first vaccination is usually given at 6—9 weeks of age.
The last dose of the initial vaccination series should not be administered before the kitten is 16 weeks old, to allow time for interfering maternal antibodies to wane so they do not inactivate the modified-live vaccine virus.
The function of OrfA in viral replication is unclear, however the orfA -encoded product may display many of the attributes of HIV-1 accessory gene products such as Vpr, Vpu or Nef.
The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core the protein shell of a virus and the matrix protein also derived from Gag forms a shell immediately inside of the lipid bilayer.
Both SU and TM glycoproteins are heavily glycosylated, a characteristic that scientists believe may mask the B-cell epitopes of the Env glycoprotein giving the virus resistance to the virus neutralizing antibodies.
Furthermore, the vectors can be used on dividing and non-dividing cells. FIV and feline leukemia virus FeLV are sometimes mistaken for one another though the viruses differ in many ways.
Although they are both in the same retroviral subfamily orthoretrovirinae , they are classified in different genera FeLV is a gamma-retrovirus and FIV is a lentivirus like HIV The two viruses are also quite different genetically, and their protein coats differ in size and composition.
Although many of the diseases caused by FeLV and FIV are similar, the specific ways in which they are caused also differs. Also, while the feline leukemia virus may cause symptomatic illness in an infected cat, an FIV infected cat can remain completely asymptomatic its entire lifetime.
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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. Retrovirology: Research and Treatment. Retrieved Virus : Retroviruses.
Avian sarcoma leukosis virus Rous sarcoma virus. Mouse mammary tumor virus Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus.
Murine leukemia virus Abelson murine leukemia virus Friend virus Feline leukemia virus Koala retrovirus KoRV Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter Pink Lady Prämien angezeigt. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Neuen Eintrag schreiben.